The history of the development of tourism in Crimea.The origin of the resort.

The reactionary development of the Crimea has its origins from the late 18th century, when the South coast began construction of palaces and large estates, the vineyards and the creation of parks.

Imperial family

First among Russian monarchs visited the Crimea, Catherine II. After visiting the Crimea she called him “the jewel of its crown.” Alexander I bought the estate in Oreanda, passed to Nicholas I, who visited the Palace only once.

The first example of systematic rest in Crimea was given by Alexander II: the Imperial family and personally Alexander II became active supporters of the summer holidays in Crimea. Purchased the estate of Livadia, where he came regularly to the sea on the boat from Odessa or Sevastopol. In the 1860s, the Crimea is becoming a priority site of the Imperial summer vacation, and on the Peninsula creating the infrastructure, the ultimate level of luxury. Main Imperial residence Livadia, in fact, a suburb of Yalta. Alupka with her exquisite Palace and magnificent coastal Park complex was not used. And the point here in the remoteness of Alupka: even in the late nineteenth century it remained located extremely uncomfortable. The Palace of count Vorontsov in practical terms was uncomfortable – they could enjoy, but difficult to use. Livadia was in sight not only in Yalta, but also throughout the Empire, and stay in the Palace of the Imperial family, individual representatives of the Russian nobility and the Emperor became a great advertisement for the Crimea as a whole. Judging by the descriptions, the Emperor and his family did not do anything unusual. For example, in 1869 routine of Royal life in Livadia is: “Life here was simple and pleasant. The king got up early, walked around the Park and swimming in the sea. Of the day he devoted to public business, spare time often went on walks through the Yalta and its surroundings. Sometimes the trips were made on horseback or on foot, the king walked the streets easily without protection.” Periodically in Livadia arranged entertainment. It was the holidays not only for the Royal family but for the whole of Yalta, which greatly revived the monotone, monotonous life of the then southern coast and, of course, contributed to the attractiveness of the resort.

Special attachment to Crimea remained and the subsequent Russian emperors and members of their families. In 1883 he first arrived in Livadia Alexander III. He and his family had taken horseback riding and Hiking in the surrounding mountains, boating, hunting in the area Cosmo-Damianakos mon-series. The Emperor was soon purchased from the heirs of Vorontsov the Yalta and AI-Danil. Don’t forget about blagoustroistve nearest Yalta – built pier, sewer, Telegraph, light, water supply.

Nicholas II demolished the old Livadia Palace and built a new (archit. Krasnov). He wanted to move to the Crimea the capital of the Empire, and after the abdication asked to put him in Livadia, but…

“The journey of Her Imperial Majesty in the South side of Russia, predpriimchivie in 1787”.

Route: Perekop – Bakhchisaray – Sevastopol – AK – Mosque – Karasubazar – Pike – Old Crimea – Feodosia – Henichesk.

Preparations for the journey began in 1784, the Construction or expansion and improvement of roads (Catherine miles). For traveling even built whole cities: Kherson, Nikolaev, Sevastopol, Simferopol, travel palaces. The second group of questions was transport: the horse and buggy. Produced over 200 crews. At each station the cortege was met by from 500 to 600 fresh horses. In total, the convoy consisted of almost 200 people. Rode slowly: from 9 to 12 and 15 to 19 hours. Dinners were held in public buildings or in the landlords ‘ estates, and in the newly acquired territory in traveler’s palaces. All tableware every time was new, and after dinner were given in memory of the owners.

…After Perekop they could see the other paintings: glittered under the southern sun the salt lakes, Tatar villages with minarets, windmills, deep wells, surrounded by cattle at a watering place, tame of bustards and cranes, grazing camels, which are also lazy and proud, like their owners, kept his head down when approaching an unprecedented crews. All around were tall mounds – the silent witnesses of many peoples.

In Bakhchisaray, on the mountain, the right side is the best shelf Potemkin, who greeted travelers drumbeat, worship banners. The travellers felt that they are in a sort of Turkish or Persian city. By order of the Governor of the district, all the shops and coffee-houses were opened. The travelers saw narrow streets with flat roofs of lovcenac and products: leather, felt, gun, and copper products, as well as Tatars, dressed in jackets, trousers, women’s indispensable white or green veils on their faces, mull spacious robes and turbans on their heads. Bakhchisaray is like all of its unusual appearance.

In the Khan’s Palace was no place for all: the Empress took a large hall and other rooms. At nightfall all the mountains surrounding the city, all the houses, sprawling amphitheatre, were illuminated by numerous lights. Catherine visited the Uspensky monastery and Chufut-Kale, examined their monuments, synagogue, visited the house of the Karaite elders.

Then went to Inkerman. During the feast in Inkerman in a specially built at the highest point of the mountain pavilion, sign Potemkin, suddenly pulled back the curtain that hid a large balcony facing the Gulf. All the kings, princes and envoys were shocked: on the shores of the Bay is curved, horseshoe stretches of the city. And at the roadstead rocked the ships. All guns ships opened fire. The sight was truly awesome.

After dinner the Empress Catherine II, the Austrian Emperor Joseph II and others went on boats to Sevastopol. Boat with the guests passed under sail and rowed almost the entire Bay and stuck to the current Count’s Wharf. In the evening, after all the submissions to the Empress, was shown “the play”: on the North side was built a fake town, bombed, bombed and set on fire. Took Potemkin beloved Empress and his estate in the Baidar valley.

At Balaclava the Empress was in for a surprise. She met a company of Amazons, composed of noble wives and daughters standing here Greek regiment. 100 riders – all in the skirts of crimson velvet, trimmed with gold, in jackets green velvet, also trimmed with gold, in white turbans with gold sequins and ostrich feather armed with guns. Catherine was Milena.

In Laspi led specially built road, where two of the Emperor – Catherine and Joseph admiring the magnificent views of the southern coast of Crimea. And ScaleY – huge “set stones” – menhirs, the age of which exceeded 3 thousand years BC.

Then the travelers returned to Bakhchisarai. On the way to Simferopol settled merchants, and villagers who lived near the city. Travelers headed to the traveling Palace (R. Luxemburg str., 15). The Palace this was founded on October 21, 1784, and was fully prepared for your arrival. The house consisted of 20 rooms. It built kitchen (rear), and on the sides of several annexes 15, 13, 7, and 8 rooms. Hosted a dinner at which, except for Catherine and Joseph, was attended by 46 people. In the garden of a Palace, Catherine planted three mulberry and the motorcade moved on. In Karasubazar ran a new wide road made with the help of soldiers. On the banks of the river Karasu was laid out an extensive garden in the English style, and flaunted in the midst of his magnificent Palace. Then came another trip to Old Crimea, Sudak and Feodosia. Then through Perekop back at the path.

Extra cost the Treasury $ 15 million rubles, annual income of about Potemkin (and he was nearly 4 million), but the economic, political, diplomatic value of this lot is hard to overestimate. The West will learn what sources of wealth and power has Russia.

Russian nobility

With the 1820s, the Crimea is becoming a popular holiday destination for Russian nobility and the wealthy people of the Empire. Actively is building a luxury houses and residences for temporary seasonal residence. Cheap land, assistance in creation of infrastructure (roads, water, sewer, etc.) attract wealthy in the Crimea population. Summer vacation Russian nobility had to use for the trip to the Crimea. It was fashionable, and Patriotic, as did the Emperor himself.

The beginning of the landlords colonization went with the more affordable areas – Sudak (Pallas, Mordvinov), boats (Potemkin, Mordvinov). The South coast became assimilated landlords with only 20x gg 19 in the first estate of the Governor Borozdin Kuchuk lambat, Duke de Richelieu in Gurzuf and NBS – three of the oasis of Europe on the edge of the Asian lands.

The genuine development of the South coast associated with the name of Prince Vorontsov, who was acquired in 1820, the estate of Marian and AI-Danil – vineyards, bought the estate Richelieu and in 1824 began to settle in Alupka, where in 15 years has grown the Palace. After the Prince timidly began to support other nobles. Simultaneously with the Alupka have any estate Koreiz Princess Golitsina and estate Naryshkin in Miskhor. In 1828 Mr. Maltsev acquired the estate Simeiz and began the activity (during the trip lost engagement ring and decided to buy the area). The estate was built solely for recreation unlike generic business estates in the provinces of Russia. The land has become fabulously grow – in 1802 – the tithe of the land cost 30 rubles, in 1837 5000 rubles for tithing.

Built these palaces and magnificent parks. Princes Yusupovs – largest after the Royal family landowners Russia. Their estates – Kokosy, Koreiz – the most wealthy and well-groomed in Crimea after the Imperial. Largest landowner was the Emir of Bukhara – one of the richest people in the world. He loved the Crimea and bought land in Yalta where he built a Palace in the Moorish style. From Borozdina moved to Prince Gagarin estate Kuchuk lambat, where the house was built in the form of a German Palace. To the nobility began to approach manufacturers. In 1909 in Mukhalatka the Palace was built a wine merchant Kokoreva, which is not inferior