Organized travel with the purpose of exploring the culture and nature of other peoples existed in the ancient world. So, in the VI century BC the ancient Greeks and Romans traveled to Egypt, where they were attracted by the ancient history, culture, unique nature, beautiful Egyptian structures. The first Greek tourist, about which reliable data is available is the “father of history” of Herodotus, who described their travels.
His second book devoted to Ancient Egypt, which he visited after 459 ad Traveled the ancient Greeks and their country (travel to Olympia for the Olympic games), made the long trip to the healing springs, as well as to the “sacred places”. Aristotle, Democritus, Quintilian in his treatises on education recommended that the understanding of nature in direct contact with her.
The targeted development of tourism as a means of physical development was carried out in the Renaissance (XV-XVI centuries), after centuries of restrictions introduced by the Church to the sphere of spiritual and physical development of man. Humanists sought systematization of education, taking into account different aspects of human life, determined the most effective means of forming qualities. Thus, representatives of Western European Renaissance X. Vives, M. Montel, T. Moore, F. Rabelais, E. Rotterdam talked about the need for the introduction of the organized process of physical education of youth, reserving a special place for the use of Hiking. Vittorino de Feltre, teaching various tourist exercises organized in 1425 in Mantua school, worked with his students Hiking in the foothills of the Alps. He paid great attention to the use of tourist trips for the education of the younger generation teacher I. Camerarius (“Talk about exercise”), an Italian Professor of medicine I. Mercurialis (“exercise”). Tourist hikes as a means of healing people was a common practice even in seminaries of the Jesuits.
The Age Of Enlightenment
In the age of Enlightenment (the seventeenth century) Jean-Jacques Rousseau, G. Libel, etc. seen in tourist trips a means of Patriotic education of young people, fostering their health, and their doctrine ’s Knowledge of nature and the desire to produce natural norms of behavior” contributed to the development of tourism. Jean-Jacques Rousseau argued for the importance of pedestrian travel to solve health care problems, developed the theory about the importance of travel as an indispensable part of education, revealed the goals and objectives of travel and their interaction with other means of identity formation. His theory was supplemented by the works of famous German teachers I. Saltzman, I. The Church-Church, F. Jan.
At the end of the XVII century— the beginning of XVIII century in European countries, some teachers in working with students used Hiking tours and trips to surrounding places of interest. Such journeys they called excursions. In the second half of the eighteenth century in Western Europe, have created centers of tourism. Preconditions for the subsequent development of tourism related to the need of the organization and carrying out long journeys for solving cognitive tasks to study the far remote corners of the globe. With the aim of improving the motor skills of the participants of these trips are undertaken preliminary training, checked social-psychological conformity and consistency, tested necessary for the journey. Thus, there is a methodological rules and techniques of training participants ‘ travel and expeditions. Is the accumulation and synthesis of experience challenging hikes and travel for educational purposes.
Multi-day tours and expeditions for a long time had an applied nature, and their goals and objectives were somewhat limited. Over time, the nature and content of the trips and journeys are enriched, and they are approved as an effective means of physical education that can solve the educational and health problems. There are new features in the organization and conducting of travel, which required the development of theoretical foundations and methodological recommendations on the preparation of participants ‘ journeys. Appears the rationale sections of special theoretical and physical fitness journeys. Now more clearly delineated goals and objectives. During this period, dictated the need for units traveling on certain types of tourist travel, and classification of the routes that were the basis for the formation of tourism in a certain system in the form in which it exists now.
The end of the XVIII century — the first half of the nineteenth century
In the late eighteenth century — the first half of the nineteenth century in Western European countries since the beginning of the movement «Back to nature” of justification appear in the practical application of travel for physical perfection of man. Given the practical importance of tourism in the formation of vital human motor skills, their ability to provide comprehensive and harmonic impact on functional systems and organs, known teachers of the time I. Graves, Fit, etc. began to recommend tourist drills as a indispensable part of physical education. Having a more specific idea about the different tourist exercises: Tourism was included in the program of physical training in many schools. Begin to form regional alliances lovers of tourist travel. First Amateur tourism organization appeared in different countries at about the same time in the form of Alpine clubs and societies. The first such club was founded in England (1857), then in Austria (1862), Italy and Switzerland (1863), in Germany (1869), and by the end of 70-ies of the XIX century in France, Russia and other countries. In 1895 on the initiative of the Viennese newspaper «Arbeiterzeitung” was based tourism society «Die Naturfreunde” (“Friends of nature”). Staged the first circles of society outside of Austria-Hungary, the distribution of which have led to the creation in Vienna in 1908, the International center of tourism.
The beginning of the XX century
Tourism associations and clubs in some States develop routes of tourist trips, determine the evaluation criteria, i.e. created tourist classification. Gradually develop and set uniform rules for the passage of the routes, you receive the scientific validity of tourist exercise as a means of military-applied physical training of people.
In the beginning of XX century in some Western European countries (Germany, Denmark, Belgium) spread the movement ’s Itinerant scholars”, whose Charter required the inclusion of harsh outdoor environment for the upbringing of the younger generation. The members of this society were the children of representatives of the propertied classes. The activities of this society was a protest against the methods of education in bourgeois society. Approved new directions in tourism development. Occurs complete system of organizational and methodical activities that have contributed to the further development of tourism as a means of physical education. A progressive phenomenon in the further development of tourism was the establishment in 1919 of the International touring Alliance (AIT). It should be noted that in the conditions of bourgeois society tourism was only available to representatives of the propertied classes.
For the imperialist stage of capitalism is characterized by the strengthening of military-applied orientation of physical training of youth, the subordination of intellectual, moral and aesthetic development of a person physical education. Thus, in Nazi Germany, special attention was paid to tourism activities for children, and in the so-called “labour camps– they were one of the main means of education of future soldiers. A similar pattern was observed before the second world war in Italy, Japan and other imperialist States.
According to A. A. Ostapa (1985), interest in traveling in our country is closely linked with the development of local history. The beginning of regional studies in Russia in the time of Peter the great (from 12 February 1718), who is ordered to report to the king about all the curious findings.
One of the first organizers of tours and hikes with children was the Decembrist I. D. Yakushkin. He practiced summer hikes and excursions to the Botanical theme with pupils Yalutorovskiy female school (Tyumen region). A. Y. Gerd introduced the excursion as a teaching method in teaching of science.
First long tour
First long trip made by a group of students of Novorossiysk University (Odessa) across mountain Crimea in 1876 it was Led by Geology Professor I. A. Golovinsky. But in 1877, when the Caucasian society of natural Sciences in Tbilisi, Georgia appeared first Russian Alpine club. The first member of his was a well-known researcher of the Caucasus A. V. Pastukhov, the name of which is named the stone platform on the slope of Elbrus (“Shelter Pastukhov”). At the same time the doctor VI Dmitriev organizes in the Crimea (Yalta) Circle of nature lovers, mountain sports and the Crimean mountains, which became the basis for the Crimean mountain club with the Board in Odessa, established in 1890, which later changed its name to the Crimea-Caucasus mountain club. He had branches in Sevastopol, Yalta or the Caucasus, their shelters, and led a well-organized tour. The purpose of this club was a scientific study area, the study of local industries of agriculture, nature conservation and all sorts of attractions. He had his flag, printed, published “Notes”, widely reflected many of the issues of tourism in Russia and abroad. During this period, these clubs are created in many cities.