In recent times, tourism has experienced significant growth and became a massive socio-economic phenomenon of international scope. Its rapid development contributes to the expansion of political, economic, scientific and cultural relations between States and peoples of the world.
Mass development of tourism allows millions of people to significantly expand knowledge of the history of his country and other countries, to make them more sustainable, concrete, shaped, better understanding the process and importance of certain historical events and phenomena, to see the sights of a country, etc.
From an economic perspective, tourism — this is a special type of consumption by tourists of material benefits, services and goods, which is released in a separate branch of industry, providing the tourist with everything you need: vehicles, accommodation facilities, catering, household services, recreational activities.
In some countries, tourism is becoming an increasingly significant item of government revenue and is among the most promising sectors of the national economy.
Tourism — the concept is quite broad and in literature one can find various definitions. From the etymological point of view, the word “tourism” comes from the French word tourisme, tour, meaning ” a walk, a journey or trip, ending with a return to the starting lot.
The history of tourism in their research relies on a number of auxiliary historical disciplines — archaeology, numismatics, paleography, Ethnography and other and closely connected with them.
The history of tourism development in each country has its own characteristics. Consider the historical stages of development of tourism in Russia.
1. The formation and development of excursion tourism in pre-revolutionary Russia
In the second half of the XVIII century in the Russian pedagogical literature appear the first information about school tours, which preceded the advent of tourism (N. And.Novikov, F. I. janković, V. F. Zuev, etc.).
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One of the first organizers and enthusiasts excursion work with children was the Decembrist I. D. Yakushkin. While in exile, he worked in Yalutorovskiy (Tyumen lips.) the girls ‘ school from the first years of its creation, practiced summer trips and excursions with their pupils mainly with the purpose of studying the plant world.
Gradually the idea of the tours became so popular that it was reflected in the school statutes.
Activation of sightseeing activities associated with the emergence in the second half of the nineteenth century the Society of natural history, had its organization in St. Petersburg, Moscow, Kazan, Yekaterinburg, Tbilisi and other cities of Russia. In 1905, created one of the first tour agencies — Yalta tour Desk. At the pedagogical society in Moscow since 1899, the Commission worked on the organization of educational tours for students of schools, commercial and real colleges and schools, which coordinated the activities of the Central sightseeing Commission under the Moscow school district. Despite the fragmentation of activity and the elite nature of these organizations, they played a positive role in bringing to the knowledge of nature, history and cultural attractions for young students.
In the late XIX-early XX century. the development of school-excursion technique worked such famous Methodists, E. A. Zvyagintsev, D. N. Kaigorodov, V. V. Comans, N. G.Tarasov, S. P. Arzhanov, etc. These issues were discussed at the pedagogical congresses and meetings in 1906 — 1916
In 1910, edited by B. E. Raikov and G. N. Boccia out the work “School trips, their meaning and organization”, which were first developed the basic principles of sightseeing methodology and proposed system of educational excursions for all subjects and for all classes.
On the eve of the first world war in Russia were published in several magazines, mainly engaged in the development and coverage of issues of regional geography and educational excursions: “sightseeing Bulletin” (Moscow), “School trips and school Museum” (Odessa), “Russian tripper” (Yaroslavl), as well as academic literature, instructions and manuals, conducted training of managers excursions. The work of the organisations involved such prominent scholars and public figures as A. P. Krupinski, D. N. Mamin-Sibiryak, K. A. Timiryazev, D. I. Mendeleev, I. P. Pavlov, N. M.Przewalski, D. N. Anuchin, V. I. Vernadsky, P. P. Semenov-Tyan-Shan, Yu. M. Shokalsky, G. E. Surowski, D. N. Kaigorodov, V. V. Comans, N. P.Antsiferov, B. E. Raikov, I. M. Grevs, etc.
The development of the tour was accompanied by the discovery of the historical, cultural and nature monuments, ensembles, museums and various exhibitions. This was facilitated by the initiatives and activities of scientific societies, representatives of the democratically-minded intelligentsia. In 1872, in Moscow, opened the Polytechnic Museum, founded in 1873 historical. Pavel Tretyakov donated Moscow paintings collected by him and his brother.
In the 90-ies of the XIX century school-tour case received the support of the official authorities, including the Ministry of national education and of the Synod, which decided to use the tour as a means of moral and religious impact on students.
However, in pre-revolutionary school tours were conducted mainly to study of nature and historical places.
As for time of origin of tourism in Russia, while there is no single point of view. However, most researchers considered the beginning of organized tourism 1777 — the year of publication in Moscow Benjamin Genchem “Plan travel undertaken in Curia edge”, as an earlier documentary evidence on specially organized collective traveling abroad or in Russia could not be traced.
Along with the trips abroad were organized internal and Hiking in the country. However, while tourist travel and excursions were generally small in numbers, they could afford the representatives of the wealthy. The bulk of the population of tourist trips were not available.
However, the distribution of excursions, mountain climbing, Hiking and Cycling, attention to tourism and excursions of many educational institutions, organizations, scientific and professional societies, the desire of the Russian intelligentsia to use leisure, travel and sightseeing tours to educate people created the preconditions for uniting lovers of tourism and excursions in various specialized organizations.
The first tourism organization in Russia originated in the Caucasus. And this is no accident. Even in ancient times, the Caucasus visited by travellers. They were attracted primarily such port cities of the black sea coast, as Bates (Batumi), phasis (Poti), Giono (Ochamchire), Pinus (Pitsunda), Triglav (Gagra), Bata (Novorossiysk), Gorgippia (Anapa), the Dioscuri long ago (Sukhumi), etc. very often visited the phasis and the Dioscuri long ago. It should be noted that the trading operation in the Dioscuri were conducted with the help of local translators. These guides and interpreters was probably the first guides.
In the middle ages, the areas of the Caucasus is widely visited by travelers from the West and the East not only with religious and commercial, and educational purposes. For them were laid many caravan routes.
In the XIV-XVI centuries in the times of the Genoese and Venetian expansion on the black sea coast of the Crimea and the Caucasus, merchants and travellers Mediterranean countries stayed in the Caucasus in special guest houses, ruins of which have survived to our days in New Athos, Gagra, Hosta and other places. They are known as the Genoese and Venetian towers-hotels. In the Western part of Georgia, in particular the adjarians and manholes, before the nineteenth century there was a tradition in the construction of hotels — one-story log house of two rooms. Usually in these hotels and the travelers stayed.
Caucasian hospitality is appreciated by the great travellers of the middle ages Marco Polo, A. Nikitin, Georges Chardin and others.
In 1877 in Tiflis in the Caucasus natural history society for the first time in Russia, there is an Alpine club. An active member of this club was a well-known researcher of the Caucasus A. V. Pastukhov, named after-situated at an altitude of Ocala 500 m on Elbrus stone platform — shelter Pastukhov.
He lasted only a few years, however, its members organized a number of trips to the mountains and valleys of the Caucasus and published two collections under the name “news”, which contained articles about the fauna and flora of the Caucasus and Transcaucasia. They made presentations and abstracts. One of the main routes of this club becomes the Georgian Military road. On it are a separate tourist groups not only from the Caucasus and Russia but also from abroad. The owners of the famous English tourist company “cook and son,” driving through Dariali gorge on the way, came to the conclusion that it is not suitable for the organization of group travel.
The danger to life exploring the Caucasus, wrote in the Russian press, at the same time praising the beauty of the mountain.
In 1888 in Tiflis was first published “a guide to the Caucasus” with drawings and a map. The originator E. Veidenbaum gave the book a detailed description of the Caucasian area, nine routes with a description of the main settlements, cities, natural and historical attractions.
During this period in Russia there are the first tourist company. In the late nineteenth century among Russians has become more popular second mountain area — the Crimea, to which can be reached both on land and sea. In addition, the Crimean mountains drew