People traveled always, at all times. The representatives of the ancient peoples that inhabited different parts of the Earth, have left records of their impressions of their stay in distant lands. These historical evidences reveal that as we expand trading activities and gains, for example, in Greece, Rome and China, the representatives of the noble class in these countries often went on trips for entertainment, shopping or diplomatic purposes. Herodotus, for example, he left a substantial written legacy of their short trips and longer journeys.
In this literature, which had jizneopisaniya character and historical orientation, was considered the art and philosophy of leisure, described the population of other countries, languages, religions, traditions of giving gifts, the features of local life and hospitality.
During the time of colonial conquest and geographical discoveries of the Arabs (VIII century BC) and Europeans (including Marco Polo – XII century ad) made many entries about travel. Note that these travelers left behind a remarkable literary heritage. So, the poet Basco, who visited Japan in the FIFTEENTH century wrote a memoir, which to this day serve as excellent reference material current tour. Tourism at this time had, as a rule, are not educational in nature, and focused on meeting VIPs and delegations, as well as visits to sacred sites.
From the XV century, European expansion has increased, which has partly contributed to the emergence of detailed maps and new naval ships, as well as the growth of the merchant class. According to these documents, since the middle of XVI century the inhabitants of Northern Europe regularly went for treatment to the mineral water, in the well-known training centers of Italy and to the monuments of the great civilizations in southern Europe. Initially travelled only know the pilgrims and diplomatic envoys. The concept of the “tour” was introduced much later, in the 1750s and soon the term “tourist” was adopted to refer to the participants in such an entertaining and educational journeys.
At first the tours were extended by 2-3 years. Traveler (usually a young man) was accompanied in the trip by the guardian. A legacy to us in his memoirs, travel guides and guidebooks left many of the narratives about these journeys. These were not only literary, but informative and descriptive, cross-cultural and cultural work, perhaps the best illustration of which are notes of Goethe and Stendhal about Italy, and Turgenev and Karamzin – about Germany and France, Darwin’s on wildlife and landscapes of various countries which he visited during the voyage of the Corvette “Beagle”.
Pilgrimage as a special branch of travel also left numerous documentary evidence, among which I would like to mention “the Monk parthenius narrative of travels in the monasteries”.
The industrial revolution, missionary work, social reformation has made big changes in the lives of people.
Modern tourism was born in the XIX century in England. Known even the exact date of Foundation of tourism – July 6, 1841. On this day, the Englishman Thomas cook (1808-1885) opens first travel Agency. He made a real discovery: invented tourism is one of the most profitable business, which today are rich not only individual firms, but also entire countries. T. cook, the great English reformer tourism, first begins to use rail transport to the middle class for the city, exhibitions and rallies. Noting the commercial prospects of mass tourism, it marked the beginning of modern tourism industry: travel agencies, reservation of seats in vehicles and hotel rooms, hotel classification, traveler’s checks, schedules and quality travel guide with complete information.
It all started quite prosaic. Thomas cook was born in the impoverished English family. Soon after his father’s death he was sent to school at the monastery. Reaching 17 years of age, Thomas was baptized and became a full member of the Baptist Church. He moved from Melbourne to Loughborough, where he began tirelessly writing articles for a local Baptist magazine, in which he declared merciless war on drunks and smokers. When in 1840 was opened railway line, linking Derby with Rugby, Thomas cook suddenly realized what a wonderful invention, such as the railway, it is necessary to use for advertising a sober lifestyle. He decided to hire a train to take it “friends of temperance” from Leicester to Loughborough on a quarterly meeting of the Association of abstainers South Central counties of England. 570 “friends of temperance”, which became the first tourists, plunged into nine open wagons. In the future for promotional purposes railroad began to provide Cucu discounts that allow you to organize recreational trips and for people with the most limited financial resources. Therefore, customers were not hundreds, but thousands. His tours and travels was based on a very effective principle: “getting the maximum benefit for the maximum number of people at minimal cost”.
In the summer of 1845 Thomas cook organized the first purely entertaining journey – without sermons and mortification. For his first trip, however, as for all subsequent, cook issued a small guide with a detailed description of all the attractions that tourists can see. The success has surpassed the most optimistic expectations. During the advertising campaign, the demand for tickets was so high that I had to hire two trains instead of one.
Having mastered the routes across Scotland, Ireland, North Wales and the Isle of man, cook went on. He offered several large landowners in Central England to open their castles and parks of ordinary people for inspection.
Cook has developed in many European cities. In 1865 he opened for fellow New Light, and for Americans – homeland of their ancestors. The activity was carried out through the Agency of the “Thomas cook and son”, the first firm specializing in the organization of tourist trips. One of the first American clients of the firm became mark TWAIN. Not coincidentally, the most vivid description of such a journey is, in a parody of Mark TWAIN’s “Simpletons abroad” (1869).
Gradually, mass tourism began to acquire an international character. Tourism has become a social phenomenon of a huge, global scale. Improvement of production, the development of society has led to increased free time, and new conditions of life people increase recreational needs.
At the junction of the NINETEENTH and twentieth centuries. description of travel ceased to be a priority area of attention of philosophers and free bright individuals-singles (such as Humboldt, Spencer, Marx or Plekhanov), but thanks to them that the period of socialization of tourism, identified trends, grounded in the works of M. Weber, Durkheim, Veblen and van Gennep.
Closely with the history of tourism and associated development of the doctrine of tourism. Historically the study of tourism as a science did their own business, and such teachings consistent with the spirit and character of tourism of his time.
The first world war and the social revolution in Russia put an end to the power of the aristocracy. People have become more attentive to the nature of the crisis of health in a global industrialization and urbanization. Gaining popularity of sunbathing, especially in seaside resorts, and recreation in the mountains, skiing, Hiking, cruises. The development of these activities continues to this day.
During this period, the priority in the development of the doctrine of tourism are becoming historical studies that examine how tourism in General and the history of individual resorts. Historians had been made a major contribution, for example, in the study of the forms of recreation in Ancient Rome, SEVENTEENTH century England, the history of great geographical discoveries, world travel, world tour.
Since the 1930s, geography began to pay more attention to the descriptions and cross-cultural characteristics of specific areas and contributed to the interest in the problems of development of domestic tourism.
Subsequently, after world war II decades, tourism has stimulated the development of all countries, but especially liberated from colonial oppression. A crucial role in promoting outbound tourism has played an appearance in 1952 in Russia air travel, as well as, indeed, in the U.S., scientists have focused on domestic tourism and the issues of recreation.
To the 60-th years of XX century on the territory of Western Europe, and the USA in particular, has started to develop particular socio-economic system, which by the early 80-ies began to acquire international nature of the tourism industry.