Organized travel with the purpose of exploring the culture and nature of other peoples existed in the ancient world. So, in the VI century BC the ancient Greeks and Romans traveled to Egypt, where they were attracted by the ancient history, culture, unique nature, beautiful Egyptian structures. The first Greek tourist, about which reliable data is available is the “father of history” of Herodotus, who described their travels.
His second book devoted to Ancient Egypt, which he visited after 459 ad Traveled the ancient Greeks and their country (travel to Olympia for the Olympic games), made the long trip to the healing springs, as well as to the “sacred places”. Aristotle, Democritus, Quintilian in his treatises on education recommended that the understanding of nature in direct contact with her. Continue reading
In recent times, tourism has experienced significant growth and became a massive socio-economic phenomenon of international scope. Its rapid development contributes to the expansion of political, economic, scientific and cultural relations between States and peoples of the world. Mass development of tourism allows millions of people to expand knowledge on the history of his country and other countries, to get acquainted with the sights, culture, traditions of a country. Tourism is the term that does not have roots and origins in Russian, came from other language systems, in particular from the French language.
From an economic perspective, tourism is a special kind of consumption by tourists of material benefits, services and goods, which is released in a separate branch of industry, providing the tourist with everything you need: vehicles, food, accommodation, welfare services, recreational activities. Thus, tourism is among the most promising sectors of the national economy (in some countries). Continue reading
Millions of Germans are annually sent to travel abroad. With tourism as a mass phenomenon began to develop just a few decades ago. Before long journeys could afford only very wealthy people.
Many kilometers of traffic jams on roads and endless queues at airports – so Germany looks during the summer school holidays. A trip to one of the Canary Islands, including flights and the cost of a weekly stay in the hotel with Breakfast and dinner, you can buy it for 300 euros. While on vacation the majority of Germans have begun only a few decades ago.
In carriages over rough roads
“Researchers believe that the concept of “tourism” appeared in the XVIII century” – says the Hasso Spode (Hasso Spode), member of the historical archive at the Free University of Berlin. But what separates the traveler from the tourist? “Tourism is travel without clearly defined objectives, – the expert believes. – Previously, the travelers set out on a journey with a specific mission: the pilgrims sought spiritual solace, the conquerors had set sail for new victories.” And only in the XVIII century people began to travel just for fun.
Only for the rich
At first, the journey could afford only wealthy people. Had to get to the goal on rough roads, to take care of the nights and the change of horses. Because Germany at that time was not a unified state, travelers at border crossings had to pay fees for the use of roads and other charges.
According to the testimony of German historians, the first “shelter” organized tourism began in the late eighteenth century the Mecklenburg Baltic sea coast. In the town of Heiligendamm began to open the baths and beaches. Travelers were asked all thirty-three pleasures: gambling, horse riding, horse racing, various festivals, and even the services of prostitutes. Swimming in the sea was not the main occupation of the illustrious visitors. The writer Ludwig Bern (Ludwig Börne) in 1825 laughed at them: “the Princes and princesses here so much as the snails: they are met at every step”.
Advertising poster Thomas cook
Revolution Thomas Cook
“Tourism was popular among a small number of people. In the eighteenth century only about one percent of people in Germany could afford to travel,” explains the Hasso Spode. However, the situation quickly changed. Not only aristocrats longed for rest. In 1841 a British entrepreneur Thomas cook has made a revolution in the field of tourism: using the railway, it carried a group of about 600 people for the purpose of walks. Thomas cook booked for clients whole trains and in hotels. Staying out of the competition, he offered tourists vacation at very affordable prices.
“Thomas cook was a very successful businessman in the field of tourism”, – emphasizes the Berlin expert Hasso Spode. It offered its clients the services of tour guides, took responsibility for solving various organizational problems while traveling. In Germany very quickly found followers cook, who began to engage in tourist business, taking advantage of rail transport. Because the train could ride in any weather, regardless of the state of the roads, and the passengers could enjoy the views from the Windows of cars.
When national socialism
After coming to power in 1933 the Nazis took into their own hands and travel business. Their main goal was to attract representatives of the working class. “The Nazis created in 1933 the organization “Strength through joy” (“Kraft durch Freude”), which became one of the world’s largest travel companies,” emphasizes the Hasso Spode. She offered, for example, cruises that were previously available only to the rich. Propaganda pictures show people on the loungers, enjoying the sunshine on Board the ship.
Passenger liner “Wilhelm Gustloff”, 1938
But with the outbreak of the Second world war, the tourist zeal of the Nazis subsided. The private travel company continued to exist, which is very irritated the authorities, who wanted to use trains exclusively for military purposes. “Wanderlust in the people was so great that the Nazis were afraid of her to interfere”, – says the expert on the history of tourism the Hasso Spode. Only in 1943 the German travel companies was suspended.
The economic success of West Germany led to the revival of the tourism industry. Many went on the road already in their own cars. In 1970-ies routes vacations have become more diverse. Especially fond of the Germans, Italy and Spain. Rising wages and relatively low prices of sale vouchers made the experience accessible to everyone.
The beach in the Italian resort town of Rimini
In the GDR have been a somewhat different situation. Here, according to the expert the Hasso Spode, the widespread so-called social tourism. The rest of the citizens were controlled by the authorities, and the unions were the main coordinators of the holiday destinations of the inhabitants of the GDR. The choice was, but not too wide: GDR citizens could go to neighboring socialist countries, say, in Hungary or Czechoslovakia, Poland or the USSR. Only with the fall of the Berlin wall, East Germans gained full freedom of movement.
But not all Germans today pulling abroad. “Germany itself for many still is a favorite place of rest”, – said the expert on tourism from the University of Munich jürgen Shade (Jürgen Schmude). And the attitude of the Germans to the rest changed lately. Despite the fact that in 2012 holiday budget people in Germany were not the highest in the world, giving primacy to China, tourism in Germany – good prospects.
“A new trend several trips a year: the Germans divide their vacation into two or three parts. If before the vacation was only for the summer, today the Germans rest and in the autumn, winter and spring”, – says the expert from Munich.
City scientific and practical conference
“Young researchers Khibiny”
The history of tourism development in the Khibiny mountains (1929 – 1940)
CHAPTER. The development of tourism in the Khibiny mountains.
Appendix 1. Questioning
Appendix 2. The illustrations to the text Continue reading
Federal space Agency ha found an investor willing to invest in the construction of the spaceship “the Union” specifically for the “tourist” way, is spoken in the message of Roscosmos.
Federal space Agency has found an investor willing to invest in the construction of a spaceship “Union” specifically “tourist” run, is spoken in the message of Roscosmos.
Space tourism is paying for from the private funds going into space or into orbit in entertainment or research purposes.
Currently only used for the purpose of space tourism is the international space station (ISS). The flights are operated using Russian spacecraft “Union”.
Organization of flights tourists do Roscosmos and the American company Space Adventures. Space Adventures has cooperated with the “Russian” since 2001. Just using this company in the space has already visited five tourists. In “turn” on the fly signed up for another 12 people.
Earlier space flights cost the tourists in 20-25 million dollars since July 2007, the space cost of the tour has grown to 30-40 million dollars. In addition, we announced a price for a new service – output space tourist into space – $ 15 million. Continue reading
The history of Russian tourism a little more than 110 years. In 1895, were organized by the Yalta tour Desk Crimea-Caucasus mountain club, and the first tourist society – Russian touring club (combined first Bicycle tourists). In 1901, the club was transformed into the Russian society of tourists (short MOUTH), which lasted until the summer of 1928, Later it was transformed into the Society of proletarian tourism (WHOLESALE).
Under the Charter members of the MOUTH could not be students, women, and persons of lower ranks. The society set itself the task of organizing tourist trips across Russia and abroad, familiarity with the sights of ancient Russian cities, as well as organizing trips to the “Holy places”.
In 1914 the MOUTH consisted of 5000 people. Continue reading
The origin of the resort.
The reactionary development of the Crimea has its origins from the late 18th century, when the South coast began construction of palaces and large estates, the vineyards and the creation of parks.
First among Russian monarchs visited the Crimea, Catherine II. After visiting the Crimea she called him “the jewel of its crown.” Alexander I bought the estate in Oreanda, passed to Nicholas I, who visited the Palace only once. Continue reading