Thomas cook

The history of tourism.Organized travel with the purpose of exploring the culture and nature of other peoples existed in the ancient world. So, in the VI century BC the ancient Greeks and Romans traveled to Egypt, where they were attracted by the ancient history, culture, unique nature, beautiful Egyptian structures. The first Greek tourist, about which reliable data is available is the “father of history” of Herodotus, who described their travels.

His second book devoted to Ancient Egypt, which he visited after 459 ad Traveled the ancient Greeks and their country (travel to Olympia for the Olympic games), made the long trip to the healing springs, as well as to the “sacred places”. Aristotle, Democritus, Quintilian in his treatises on education recommended that the understanding of nature in direct contact with her. Continue reading

From the history of tourismTraveled humanity, perhaps always, since its inception. First, the purpose of travel was business, then business. It is the merchants and traders in ancient times, explored unfamiliar territory, paving trade routes by land and by sea. In the Middle ages we can talk about the emergence of religious tourism, aims to visit Christian and Muslim shrines. In the New time traveler becomes a hero in literature, the example of that famous Roman “Robinson Crusoe” British author Daniel Defoe. It is noteworthy that the world’s first travel Agency was opened in the UK in the third quarter of the nineteenth century. Continue reading

The history of tourism developmentTourism is a major sector of the economy. All developed Nations of the world have long been interested in its development. In the global economy, tourism has become a leading, competing only with oil.

The rapid development in the world of computer technology and the introduction of automation in tourism also make it an area of international information technologies and processes.

The role of international, regional and national tourism organizations that contribute to the development of world tourism and carry out protectionist policies within individual countries and regions. Continue reading

philosophy of leisurePeople traveled always, at all times. The representatives of the ancient peoples that inhabited different parts of the Earth, have left records of their impressions of their stay in distant lands. These historical evidences reveal that as we expand trading activities and gains, for example, in Greece, Rome and China, the representatives of the noble class in these countries often went on trips for entertainment, shopping or diplomatic purposes. Herodotus, for example, he left a substantial written legacy of their short trips and longer journeys.

In this literature, which had jizneopisaniya character and historical orientation, was considered the art and philosophy of leisure, described the population of other countries, languages, religions, traditions of giving gifts, the features of local life and hospitality.

During the time of colonial conquest and geographical discoveries of the Arabs (VIII century BC) and Europeans (including Marco Polo – XII century ad) made many entries about travel. Note that these travelers left behind a remarkable literary heritage. So, the poet Basco, who visited Japan in the FIFTEENTH century wrote a memoir, which to this day serve as excellent reference material current tour. Tourism at this time had, as a rule, are not educational in nature, and focused on meeting VIPs and delegations, as well as visits to sacred sites. Continue reading

The history of mass tourismMillions of Germans are annually sent to travel abroad. With tourism as a mass phenomenon began to develop just a few decades ago. Before long journeys could afford only very wealthy people.

Many kilometers of traffic jams on roads and endless queues at airports – so Germany looks during the summer school holidays. A trip to one of the Canary Islands, including flights and the cost of a weekly stay in the hotel with Breakfast and dinner, you can buy it for 300 euros. While on vacation the majority of Germans have begun only a few decades ago.

In carriages over rough roads

“Researchers believe that the concept of “tourism” appeared in the XVIII century” – says the Hasso Spode (Hasso Spode), member of the historical archive at the Free University of Berlin. But what separates the traveler from the tourist? “Tourism is travel without clearly defined objectives, – the expert believes. – Previously, the travelers set out on a journey with a specific mission: the pilgrims sought spiritual solace, the conquerors had set sail for new victories.” And only in the XVIII century people began to travel just for fun.

Only for the rich

At first, the journey could afford only wealthy people. Had to get to the goal on rough roads, to take care of the nights and the change of horses. Because Germany at that time was not a unified state, travelers at border crossings had to pay fees for the use of roads and other charges.

According to the testimony of German historians, the first “shelter” organized tourism began in the late eighteenth century the Mecklenburg Baltic sea coast. In the town of Heiligendamm began to open the baths and beaches. Travelers were asked all thirty-three pleasures: gambling, horse riding, horse racing, various festivals, and even the services of prostitutes. Swimming in the sea was not the main occupation of the illustrious visitors. The writer Ludwig Bern (Ludwig Börne) in 1825 laughed at them: “the Princes and princesses here so much as the snails: they are met at every step”.

Advertising poster Thomas cook

Revolution Thomas Cook

“Tourism was popular among a small number of people. In the eighteenth century only about one percent of people in Germany could afford to travel,” explains the Hasso Spode. However, the situation quickly changed. Not only aristocrats longed for rest. In 1841 a British entrepreneur Thomas cook has made a revolution in the field of tourism: using the railway, it carried a group of about 600 people for the purpose of walks. Thomas cook booked for clients whole trains and in hotels. Staying out of the competition, he offered tourists vacation at very affordable prices.

“Thomas cook was a very successful businessman in the field of tourism”, – emphasizes the Berlin expert Hasso Spode. It offered its clients the services of tour guides, took responsibility for solving various organizational problems while traveling. In Germany very quickly found followers cook, who began to engage in tourist business, taking advantage of rail transport. Because the train could ride in any weather, regardless of the state of the roads, and the passengers could enjoy the views from the Windows of cars.

When national socialism

After coming to power in 1933 the Nazis took into their own hands and travel business. Their main goal was to attract representatives of the working class. “The Nazis created in 1933 the organization “Strength through joy” (“Kraft durch Freude”), which became one of the world’s largest travel companies,” emphasizes the Hasso Spode. She offered, for example, cruises that were previously available only to the rich. Propaganda pictures show people on the loungers, enjoying the sunshine on Board the ship.

Passenger liner “Wilhelm Gustloff”, 1938

But with the outbreak of the Second world war, the tourist zeal of the Nazis subsided. The private travel company continued to exist, which is very irritated the authorities, who wanted to use trains exclusively for military purposes. “Wanderlust in the people was so great that the Nazis were afraid of her to interfere”, – says the expert on the history of tourism the Hasso Spode. Only in 1943 the German travel companies was suspended.

The economic success of West Germany led to the revival of the tourism industry. Many went on the road already in their own cars. In 1970-ies routes vacations have become more diverse. Especially fond of the Germans, Italy and Spain. Rising wages and relatively low prices of sale vouchers made the experience accessible to everyone.

The beach in the Italian resort town of Rimini

In the GDR have been a somewhat different situation. Here, according to the expert the Hasso Spode, the widespread so-called social tourism. The rest of the citizens were controlled by the authorities, and the unions were the main coordinators of the holiday destinations of the inhabitants of the GDR. The choice was, but not too wide: GDR citizens could go to neighboring socialist countries, say, in Hungary or Czechoslovakia, Poland or the USSR. Only with the fall of the Berlin wall, East Germans gained full freedom of movement.

Prospects

But not all Germans today pulling abroad. “Germany itself for many still is a favorite place of rest”, – said the expert on tourism from the University of Munich jürgen Shade (Jürgen Schmude). And the attitude of the Germans to the rest changed lately. Despite the fact that in 2012 holiday budget people in Germany were not the highest in the world, giving primacy to China, tourism in Germany – good prospects.

“A new trend several trips a year: the Germans divide their vacation into two or three parts. If before the vacation was only for the summer, today the Germans rest and in the autumn, winter and spring”, – says the expert from Munich.

The history of the development of tourism in Crimea.The origin of the resort.

The reactionary development of the Crimea has its origins from the late 18th century, when the South coast began construction of palaces and large estates, the vineyards and the creation of parks.

Imperial family

First among Russian monarchs visited the Crimea, Catherine II. After visiting the Crimea she called him “the jewel of its crown.” Alexander I bought the estate in Oreanda, passed to Nicholas I, who visited the Palace only once. Continue reading