The history of tourism is defined as the scientific study of travel (trips, excursions), from deepest antiquity to real time. The use of the historical approach to the study of tourism is carried out to determine the preconditions of the emergence, logic development method appeals to history of tourism development in previous cultures. The history of tourism originates in the history of travel and the development of traditions of hospitality.
The need for such analysis is determined zeal to identify the prospects of the forthcoming development of tourism and hospitality method of solving subsequent tasks:
– disclosure of the origins of tourism in cultural history, tracing the dynamics of travel, their goals, tasks and socio-cultural implications;
– a review of the history of travel and tourism in connection with a certain type of culture, the identification of the peculiarities of motivation of travel, a property definition “of a man travelling” in different cultures;
– analysis of the configurations in the geography of travel and tourism, tradition and hospitality in different periods of history;
– on the basis of the description of hospitality traditions of the peoples of the world to identify the directions of formation of the system hospitality and industrial developments on the modern step;
– analysis of objective reasons and circumstances of the formation of organized tourism, the awareness of development trends and state specificity;
– the disclosure of the specific features of the Belarusian tourism, its history and current status;
– knowledge of the geography of modern international tourism, major developments, prospects and problems of its development.
In modern tourism literature one can find different approaches to the question of periodization of the history of tourism and hospitality. One of the variants of periodization connects the history of tourism with the development of means of transport that are used while traveling. So, a South American scientist James. Walker believes that the history of tourism can be divided into 5 periods (or epochs). The first period he believed preindustiral when people were using very primitive means of transportation. These four eras are connected with the invention of latest vehicles. This is the age of steel roads, followed by Kara age, the age of jet Airliners and, in the end, century cruises in cruise ships. And there are other variations of periodization of the history of the Euro tourism. It is proposed, for example, divide it by four steps. The period before the nineteenth century is considered the prehistory of tourism. Throughout the nineteenth century the processes that contributed to the establishment and development of elite tourism, accompanied by the emergence of specialized companies in the production of tourism and hospitality services. 1-St half of XX century was marked by the establishment of community tourism. Since the end of the 2nd world war and the present is the period of development of mass tourism, the formation of the tourism industry as a hub of manufacturing complex products and services for tourism. In base of this periodization is based on the criteria of technical, economic and social configuration in society, also motivated the tourism function at different steps of its development.
The history of tourism development in Belarus until 1991 inextricably linked with the history of Russian tourism Union, has more than 100 years and is divided into 5 steps. 1st – education – continued until 1890 The second is the business enterprise associated with the development of capitalism in Russia. At this time is actively created companies and offices that deal with personal entrepreneurial activities in tourism. After revolution starts 3rd – organizational-centralized step. It lasted from the 20’s until the 60-ies of XX century and is characterized by the formation of Russian tourism and appearance appropriate for him municipal and public organizations. 4th step – administrative-normative (1960-1990). Beginning 5th – transition step coincides with the beginning of action of restructuring and reforming the economy in the country, when the revived tradition of entrepreneurship, including in the field of tourism.
The beginning of the XXI century was a time of severe testing for international tourism. On the dynamics of international tourism is usually influenced by the socio-economic situation in the leading countries of tourist regions of the world. Since the beginning of the South Asian, middle Eastern and Asia-Pacific regions was observed, the recession that led to a decrease in outbound tourism from Japan and then in Europe, namely in Germany, the economic downturn has had a negative impact on inbound tourism. If overall
2000 was a record number of international arrivals, this figure rose to 45 million in the next year it was zapisano the decline in international arrivals by 0.6 %. 2001 was the first over the last 9 years, when experiencing negative growth characteristics of international tourism. Such results, of course, influenced occurring this year worldwide terrorist attacks, military conflicts, political inconstancy.
Particularly affected international air passenger traffic, which immediately affected the hospitality industry and the tourism business. Real is not expected for a peaceful resolution of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, tensions between India and Pakistan, there is a real danger of war in the Persian Gulf. Climatic conditions also had a negative impact on tourism. Floods in summer 2002 in Central Europe has caused severe damage to transport infrastructure and tourist facilities. The crisis had an uneven effect on different travel destinations. More struck South Asia (reduction of 24 % in the period September to December 2001), the South American region (20 %) and middle East (11 %), while in all 3 regions of tourist activity was weakened in the period from January to August 2001 Overall for the year tourist arrivals in the region of South America and South Asia declined by 6 %, middle East – 3 %. East Asia (5% increase) and Pacific (increase of 4 %) ended the year with the increase in the number of international arrivals. In Europe it was zapisano decrease by 0.6 %.
Held in September 2002 in Madrid meeting of the UNWTO was the analysis of the tourist industry after the terrorist acts. Important features of international tourism in first half of 2002, according to experts of the UNWTO are:
– the decline in international tourism caused by the reduction of tourist flows over long distances;
– gradual improvement over time, except for some politically unstable regions
– a lower rate of corporate income;
– prices continue to play a decisive role when deciding about the purchase of tourism products;
– resource mobilization tourism administrations to improve management in order to maintain the tourism industry.
On the state of the tourist market is influenced by the individuality of tourist demand, which appeared in the near future. So, there has been a clear trend towards a shorter stay in holidays, and the vacation is divided into several parts that are connected with the reduction of working hours and increased paid time off. A growing number of elderly tourists. In tourist demand is also increasing role of migration flows.
Segmentation of demand varies with increasing requirements that go beyond the ordinary purposes of travel. In the tourist market, the demand for individualized vacation, other accommodation facilities, not in hotels. Extreme, namely, connected with the choice of not simply active holidays and vacation, a busy associated with interactive role in various activities. These criteria UNWTO considers fundamental to continue their management and tourism industry to mobilize all of its own resources and through, namely the Committee for the restoration of tourism that develops creative and effective mechanisms to restore tourist confidence.
The first XXI century tourism has proved to be a sustainable and stable sector of the world economy, despite certain bad influence.
The industry of tourism and hospitality develops in the near future under the influence of a number of reasons, which can be divided into two groups – external and internal. The exterior is determined by the action of the components of the surrounding reality, not related to the functioning of the industry of tourism and hospitality. Internal causes specifically connected with the traits of organization and functioning of companies in the tourism industry. External factors include: political, legal, travel safety, economic and monetary, cultural, demographic, infrastructure, communication, trade, latest and new technologies.
In addition to the exterior of the reasons for the development of international tourism, it is necessary to highlight and flesh out a rather huge group of intra-industry reasons. These are: improvement of tourism products, development of tour operator product and services, development of travel agent network, development of distribution system, the labor factor, marketing, recreation and resource potential, geographical status, etc.
The history and reasons for development of tourism and hospitality
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