City scientific and practical conference
“Young researchers Khibiny”
The history of tourism development in the Khibiny mountains (1929 – 1940)
CHAPTER. The development of tourism in the Khibiny mountains.
Appendix 1. Questioning
Appendix 2. The illustrations to the text
Appendix 3. Booklet
Annex 4. Dictionary of place names, abbreviations
My work involves studying the history of tourism in the Khibiny mountains, the roots of its origin, how it all began. This is my first stage of research.
This topic seems to me to be relevant and is that the government of the Russian Federation issued a resolution to approve and implement a Concept of development of system of especially protected natural territories of Federal significance for the period to 2020, which included the Khibiny mountains, where it is planned to create a national Park by 2015.
The novelty is the creation of a brochure tour itineraries to the natural objects of the Khibiny tundras.
The object of study – tourism in Khibiny
The subject of the study — the Society of proletarian tourism and excursions
Goal — To study the history of tourism development in the Khibiny mountains(1930 – 1940 gg..), and to develop an information brochure, a booklet with a description of the routes in the Khibiny tundras.
Conduct a survey among the population of the village of Kukisvumchorr
To teach students to work with archival, Museum documents, literary sources
To make a booklet with a tour itinerary that is relevant today.
Hypothesis: If not a large-scale work of OPTA in the 1930s they would have had the success in the development of tourism in the Khibiny mountains.
Research methods – questionnaires, study, analysis.
1 Chapter. The development of tourism in the Khibiny
To ascertain the knowledge of the history of his native land and promotion of tourism in the Khibiny I conducted a survey among their peers, classmates. The survey involved 30 people at the age of 14-15 years.
Following issues were proposed:
1) “what do You think, what year began the development of tourism in the mountains?”
2) “the Abbreviation OPTA – what does it mean? Heard anything about this?”
3) “did You Know that in the Khibiny plan to create a national Park?”
4) “did You know the history of the development of tourism in the mountains?”
The results of the survey are represented in the form of a diagram.
After analyzing the results it can be concluded that the few who has knowledge on the history of development of the native land (see Annex 1).
1.2 Optie — the Society of proletarian tourism and excursions (1927-1936)
Soviet tourism developed spontaneously and had a long time organizing center. Almost 10 years the search for the most efficient forms of tourism and excursion work. The initiator and organizer of the mass development of Amateur tourism became the Komsomol, which launched from the mid 20-ies wide activities for the organization of leisure of youth. In January 1927 a meeting was held on the organization of mass tourism. All participants agreed that tourism should be widely spread, become a powerful tool to enhance the cultural and political level of the youth acquainted with the history and modern life of the country, to attract young people to the Komsomol. Emphasized the value of Wellness campaigns, their opportunities for development of public performances.
At the Moscow conference of tourists held in January 1929, they suggested renaming the Russian society of tourists in the Society of proletarian tourism of the RSFSR.
30 November 1929 Charter of OPTA was approved. So there was in the country of mass tourism organization — the Society of proletarian tourism of the Russian Soviet Federative socialist Republic, abbreviated as OPT. Its Chairman was N. In. Krylenko.
After a year in the Society of proletarian tourism RSFSR there were 50 thousand people is a 501 member of the Russian society of tourists in 1928.
OPTA published journals: “On land and sea”, “world traveller”, “Traveller activist” (Appendix 2 Fig. 1), “Tourist Transcaucasia”, methodological and regional literature (Appendix 2 Fig. 2). In the popular series “the Library of proletarian tourism” were books: “Tourist-geologist”, “Tourist-war photographer”, “the search for precious minerals and ore,” etc. Were released guides, grid (Appendix 2 Fig. 3, 4), postcards, booklets on various routes OPTA. During its existence, APTA has developed more than 200 trails (Hiking, boating, Biking, mountain and hybrid).
The USSR at that time was blazing slogans. Proletarian tourism in this matter was not far behind: “proletarian tourism is a weapon of cultural revolution”. “To better serve the USSR need to know to better know whether a tourist” (Appendix 2 Fig. 5). “Proletarian tourism to include in the struggle for the development of the North”. “Soviet tourism is not only a holiday for the working drummer, but also a faithful helper in the construction of socialism”. One of the slogans associated with the Khibiny mountains, called: “Create in Khibinogorsk powerful base for proletarian tourism!”.
The most interesting places for tourism in the Kola Peninsula was in the 1930s the city of Murmansk, Kandalaksha, khibinogorsk and lake Imandra. Every summer, dozens of people came here, and as a stronghold for them were created in Khibinogorsk in the 1930s, the base OPTA and base of the Commission to promote scientists for scientists and tourists on lake Imandra.
Hibinogorske society of proletarian tourism and excursions was founded in September 1931. and in January 1932 Already created the first tourist of the cell.
Base OPTA located 5 km from the town, on the southern slope of the spur Kukisvumchorr, on the left Bank of the river Vodyanik for lowland swamp North shore of lake Big woodyavr (Appendix 2 Fig. 6). And 10 April 1932 took place the solemn opening of the base OPTA with a capacity of permanent stay in 125 people, which took place in the presence of the delegates to the first polar science conference and representatives of the public, party, professional, Soviet and Komsomol organizations of Khibinogorsk.
A single governing body of Hibinogorskih OPTA will be the city Council, and to identify ways for further development of the society, decided to organize a city conference of the society of proletarian tourism and excursions.
The conference was selected by the city Council of OPTA composed of 15 people, an honorary member which was academician A. E. Fersman. On the same day the base received a new lot of vacationers, who arrived among the delegates. (Appendix 2 Fig. 7)
What kinds of work performed by OPTA in Khibinogorsk?
It was an organization of excursions to the enterprises of the city and the Soviet Union, the admission of non-resident tourists, participation in the preparation of the competitions held on the territory of Khibinogorsk. The Kirov regional Council of OPTA designed children’s routes for children 11-13 years to the gorge Ramsay through the base of OPTA and climb to the peak of mount aikuaivenchorr (Appendix 2 Fig. 8). For older students was arranged trips to the Umbozero (where was opened a rest home, where two rooms were assigned for tourists and travelers).
Base OPTA would serve as the base of the sixth day of the rest of workers and employees of Khibinogorsk. Each one on the base could get a clean room and a clean bed, dinner, rest and entertainment. Holiday excursions to the “Titto” (mountain station of the Academy of Sciences) (Appendix 2 Fig. 9).
The Central Council of OPTA decided in 1935 to organize the first Arctic route on the development of the Barents sea, the island of Kolguev, Vaigach, a New earth, the Murmansk coast.
Base OPTA in the 1930s served not only for the recreation of hibinogorske and tourists coming to the city, but also was the venue of sports events. The ability to create in Kirovsk all-Union center of skiing and winter mountain tourism has further increased the value of OPTA and attracts the attention of tourists to the edge.
On the basis of organized small Museum (Appendix RIS. 10), there were maps and literature about the Khibiny mountains, including the “Guide to the Khibiny tundras”, published by the Academy of Sciences in 1931. In this book, the materials were placed, describing the flora and fauna, the climate of the mountains, and were given information on the Geology, Geochemistry and Mineralogy of the Khibiny area.
Hibinogorsky base of OPTA carried out extensive work on the organization of winter tourism. In 1938 When the database was organized winter ski station with the number of 90 pairs of skis. The station is served and visitors and local tourists. With novice skiers was conducted lessons on how to ski (Appendix 2 Fig. 11). Developed special ski trails in the surroundings of Khibinogorsk: gorge Ramsay, valley Kyivan, gorge Hakmana, Pyrrhotite gorge and a three-day trip to the Umbozero. Additionally, if the database were organized winter attractions: toboggan carousel, ice mountain, kicksled.
The activity of the base was interrupted during WWII.
After the war tourist base was rebuilt in the city Park recreation. And where was the base of OPTA, built a dispensary building “Comfort” (“tirvas”).
2 Chapter. The practical part of the research work
2.1 e xcursions route to the gorge Ramsay (1929-1936)
Why I made my choice primarily on the gorge Ramsay, because he is one of the popular natural sites in the Khibiny tundras, a link in the route.
This seemed guided tour before the war.
Route: Base OPTE — station of the Academy of Sciences — 3 km; station of the Academy of Sciences — gorge Ramsay 8-9 km; gorge Ramsay 0,4 km; gorge Ramsay – senior Khibiny 15 km.
The route is suitable for 6-8 hours, the number of kilometers about 12-13.
Route description: From the base of OPTA should climb the moraine is covered by spruce forest and separating the lake Big and Small woodyavr.
A torrent rushes here Vodyanik, paving its way to the Western part of the moraine. Road picturesquely down to the lake. Small Vudjavra and comes in plain, covered with lichen and dwarf birch to the Mountain station of the Academy of Sciences, located on the Northern shore of this scenic lake with extremely clear water surrounded