The history of tourism, as we have been told, began in ancient times, developed in the Renaissance and Enlightenment. Now is the time to talk about the history of tourism in modern times.
In the late 18th – early 19th century in Western Europe appear national system of physical education. Many teachers I. Reshetov, G. Vieth and others, applied given the particular importance of tourism and the ability to work harmoniously on all functional systems and organs, began to use and recommend the different character of the tourist campaigns as a mandatory component of physical education.
Tourism is fully included in the program of physical preparation of many schools. However, it should be noted that the system of physical education is developing in the countries of Western Europe, were focused on military-applied component in the choice of means and methods. Tourist exercises were used primarily to prepare a man for military action (the movement in the group on a given route over time, overcoming challenging natural obstacles, carrying the wounded, etc.).
There are the first methods and rules of preparation for travel, collects and summarizes the experience of travel. Participants in the period of preliminary training improve motor skills and skills necessary in the journey, test equipment, investigate socio-psychological compatibility in the group. It took the development of theoretical principles and recommendations for training and relaxation. The need for specialized theoretical and physical training to multi-day hikes predetermined division of travel by type of tourism and the classification of routes.
With the use of mass tourism exercises for the improvement of the labouring population and upbringing hardened youth involve different movements.
The youth movement associated with tourism:
“Back to nature” – advocating the use of natural factors (Goethe);
”The scout movement” – originated in England and widely spread in Russia, formed in youth by means of tourism applied military skills;
“Wandering scholars” is a movement existed in Germany, Denmark, Belgium and other Western European States, its Charter requires the use of harsh travel conditions;
“Recreational traffic” originated in the developed capitalist countries because of the sharp deterioration in working conditions, cruelly exploited by the bourgeoisie. Attempts to introduce to the people the system of physical exercises developed by J. Hebert. The special role of this system took maximum use of natural conditions (Hiking, orienteering, etc.), actively promoted tourism activities. The organizer of this movement in the U.S. L. Gulick believed that tourist travel will curb the aggressiveness of youth, would distract her from the revolutionary movement. This served the interests of the ruling class. However, the opposite happened. Developing revolutionary activities in Europe and Russia have applied tourist activities. The labor organizations have used the campaigns for mass gatherings, for training in its fight with the police.
Tourism is becoming more widespread. There are many qualitative change, new concepts, exercises to overcome natural obstacles, orienteering, tourist rallies, competitions. All this made it possible to stimulate and assess mastery of special skills involved in tourism, was an important stage predpechatnoy training.
You receive a complete system of organizational and methodical activities that contribute to the development of sports tourism as the main means of physical education. But tourism continues to serve mainly the ruling class for the conduct of organized leisure. Partially it is used for military-applied physical training of pre-conscription youth.
In 1908 in Vienna was designed by the international center of tourism.
In the period of the imperialist stage of capitalism intensified military-applied orientation of physical training. Many tourist exercise was carried out in the conditions approached to the fighting. Knowledge of geometry students received in the classroom for orientation, there was a “labor camp youth”, where tourist activities were the main means of educating future soldiers. Before the first world war similarly, tourism has been used in Italy, Japan and other imperialist States. This approach to the use of tourism when he didn’t sopodchineno with other parties upbringing, but rather suppressed them, and brought only harm to young people.
In 1919 there was an international touring Alliance (AIT).
The history of tourism in modern times began to grow harder and harder, and that’s how tourism developed in Russia? – We will cover in the next article.